The materialist viewpoint states that consciousness is derived entirely from physical matter.
Any kind of aggregation gives you consciousness. Philosophers at NYU, home to one of the leading philosophy-of-mind departments, have made panpsychism a feature of serious study. There have been several credible academic books on the subject in recent years, and popular articles taking panpsychism seriously. Because it applies to all structures—not just the human brain—Integrated Information Theory shares the panpsychist view that physical matter has innate conscious experience. Goff, who has written an academic book on consciousness and is working on another that approaches the subject from a more popular-science perspective, notes that there were credible theories on the subject dating back to the s.
Thinkers including philosopher Bertrand Russell and physicist Arthur Eddington made a serious case for panpsychism, but the field lost momentum after World War II, when philosophy became largely focused on analytic philosophical questions of language and logic. This approach views physics as describing structure, and not the underlying nonstructural elements. We know what matter does but not what it is.
We can put consciousness into this gap.
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One of the hostages was able to alert other officers to the escape and shots were fired at Boarman, Brest, and Hamilton, who were swimming away from the island. Hunter and Brest were both apprehended. Boarman was hit by gunfire and sank below the water before officers were able to reach him; his body was never recovered. Hamilton was initially presumed drowned.
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However, after hiding out for two days in a small shoreline cave, Hamilton made his way back up to the industries area, where he was discovered by correctional officers. August 7, -- Huron "Ted" Walters disappeared from the prison laundry building. He was caught at the shoreline, before he could even attempt to enter San Francisco Bay.
July 31, -- In one of the most ingenious attempts, John Giles was able to take advantage of his job working at the loading dock, where he unloaded army laundry sent to the island to be cleaned - over time, he stole an entire army uniform. Dressed in the uniform, Giles calmly walked aboard an army launch to what he thought was freedom.
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He was discovered missing almost immediately. As Giles set foot on Angel Island, he was met by correctional officers who returned him to Alcatraz. May , -- During this incident, known as the "Battle of Alcatraz" and the "Alcatraz Blastout," six prisoners were able to overpower cellhouse officers and gain access to weapons and cellhouse keys, in effect taking control of the cellhouse.
Their plan began to fall apart when the inmates found they did not have the key to unlock the recreation yard door. Shortly thereafter, prison officials discovered the escape attempt. Eventually Shockley, Thompson, and Carnes returned to their cells, but not before the officers taken hostage were shot at point-blank range by Cretzer encouraged by Shockley and Thompson.
One officer, William Miller, died from his injuries. A second officer, Harold Stites who stopped the third escape attempt , was shot and killed attempting to regain control of the cellhouse. About 18 officers were injured during the escape attempt. Marines were eventually called out to assist, and on May 4, the escape attempt ended with the discovery of the bodies of Coy, Cretzer, and Hubbard. Shockley, Thompson, and Carnes stood trial for the death of the officers; Shockley and Thompson received the death penalty and were executed in the gas chamber at San Quentin in December Carnes, age 19, received a second life sentence.
July 23, -- Floyd Wilson disappeared from his job at the dock. After hiding for several hours among large rocks along the shoreline, he was discovered and surrendered. September 29, -- While working on the garbage detail, Aaron Burgett and Clyde Johnson overpowered a correctional officer and attempted to swim from the island. Johnson was caught in the water, but Burgett disappeared. An intensive search turned up nothing. Burgett's body was found floating in the Bay two weeks later. June 11, -- Made famous by Clint Eastwood in the movie Escape from Alcatraz, Frank Morris and brothers John and Clarence Anglin vanished from their cells and were never seen again.
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A fourth man, Allen West, believed by some people to have been the mastermind, was also involved; however, he was still in his cell the next morning when the escape was discovered. An investigation revealed an intricate escape plot that involved homemade drills to enlarge vent holes, false wall segments, and realistic dummy heads complete with human hair placed in the beds so the inmates would not be missed during nighttime counts. Behind the rear wall of the cells is a utility corridor that had locked steel doors at either end.
The three men climbed the utility pipes to the top of the cellblock, and gained access to the roof through an air vent the men had previously bent the iron bars that blocked the air vent. They then climbed down a drainpipe on the northern end of the cellhouse and made their way to the water. They used prison-issued raincoats to make crude life vests and a pontoon-type raft to assist in their swim. A cellhouse search turned up the drills, heads, wall segments, and other tools, while the water search found two life vests one in the bay, the other outside the Golden Gate , oars, and letters and photographs belonging to the Anglins that had been carefully wrapped to be watertight.
But no sign of the men was found.
Several weeks later, a man's body dressed in blue clothing similar to the prison uniform was found a short distance up the coast from San Francisco, but the body was too badly deteriorated to be identified. Morris and the Anglins are officially listed as missing and presumed drowned. December 16, -- John Paul Scott and Darl Parker bent the bars of a kitchen window in the cellhouse basement, climbed out, and made their way down to the water. Parker was discovered on a small outcropping of rock a short distance from the island.
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Scott attempted to swim towards San Francisco, but the currents began pulling him out to sea. He was found by several teenagers on the rocks near Fort Point beneath the Golden Gate Bridge and was taken to the military hospital at the Presidio Army base suffering from shock and hypothermia, before being returned to Alcatraz. Over the 29 years that the Federal prison operated, 36 men including two who tried to escape twice were involved in 14 separate escape attempts.
Of these, 23 were caught, 6 were shot and killed during their escape, and 2 drowned. Two of the men who were caught were later executed in the gas chamber at the California State Prison at San Quentin for their role in the death of a correctional officer during the famous May , , "Battle of Alcatraz" escape attempt. Whether or not anyone succeeded in escaping from Alcatraz depends on the definition of "successful escape. Officially, no one ever succeeded in escaping from Alcatraz, although to this day there are five prisoners listed as "missing and presumed drowned.
One of the many myths about Alcatraz is that it was impossible to survive a swim from the island to the mainland because of sharks. In fact, there are no "man-eating" sharks in San Francisco Bay, only small bottom-feeding sharks. Prior to the Federal institution opening in , a teenage girl swam to the island to prove it was possible. Fitness guru Jack LaLanne once swam to the island pulling a rowboat, and several years ago, two year-old children also made the swim.
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If a person is well-trained and -conditioned, it is possible to survive the cold waters and fast currents. However, for prisoners - who had no control over their diet, no weightlifting or physical training other than situps and pushups , and no knowledge of high and low tides - the odds for success were slim. It did not close because of the disappearance of Morris and the Anglins the decision to close the prison was made long before the three disappeared , but because the institution was too expensive to continue operating.
The major expense was caused by the physical isolation of the island - the exact reason islands have been used as prisons throughout history. This isolation meant that everything food, supplies, water, fuel For example, the island had no source of fresh water, so nearly one million gallons of water had to be barged to the island each week. The Federal Government found that it was more cost-effective to build a new institution than to keep Alcatraz open.
After the prison closed, Alcatraz was basically abandoned. In , the island again made news when a group of Native American Indians claimed Alcatraz as Indian land with the hope of creating a Native American cultural center and education complex on the island. The "Indians of All Tribes" used their act of civil disobedience to illustrate the troubles faced by Native Americans.
Initially, public support for the Native Americans' cause was strong, and thousands of people general public, schoolchildren, celebrities, hippies, Vietnam war protesters, Hells Angels Unfortunately, the small Native American leadership group could not control the situation and much damage occurred graffiti, vandalism, and a fire that destroyed the lighthouse keeper's home, the Warden's home, and the Officers' Club. The island opened to the public in the fall of and has become one of the most popular Park Service sites - more than one million visitors from around the world visit the island each year.
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